Cost of surveillance includes each of the resources required to operate the surveillance system, like for instance: time, personnel, financial input and equipment. Please refer to the Cost-analysis tool from the Evaluation wikispace for more information.
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Surveillance design step
Advice for improvement of COST
1
Surveillance system

1.1
Hazard

1.2
Surv. Objective

1.3
Geographical area covered

1.4
Susceptible species

1.5
Risk characteristics

2
Components overview

3
Target population

3.1
Target species

3.2
Target sector

3.3
Sectors missed

3.4
Geographical area covered

3.5
Target criteria

3.6
Percentage covered

4
Disease suspicion

4.1
Definition

4.2
Obligations

4.3
Notification procedures

4.4
Actions upon suspicions

4.5
Actions upon confirmation

5
Enhancements

6
Testing protocol

6.1
Type of test to be carried out

6.2
Type of sample to be collected

6.3
Pooling
Pooling samples, either at the point of collection or in the laboratory can reduce costs.
6.4
Screening/first test

6.5
Confirmatory/ second test

6.6
Further details

7
Study design

7.1
Point of sample collection
The point at which samples are collected can influence the cost. For example collection samples at a collection point may be less costly than visiting individual farms.
7.2
Selection of units
A well designed sample can provide equally good results but at lower cost
7.3
Target unit

7.4
Sampling unit

7.5
Sampling design

7.6
Number of units in the target population

7.7
Sensitivity of the testing protocol

7.8
Specificity of the testing protocol

8
Sampling strategy

8.1
Sampling at the primary sampling unit (PSU) level:

8.2
Sampling at the secondary sampling unit (SSU) level:

8.3
Selection criteria WITHIN the population

8.4
Risk-based allocation
Risk-based surveillance may be more cost effective by reducing the amount of sampling by targeting only those areas/groups/times at higher risk.
8.5
Sample size calculation

8.6
Sample allocation at the primary level

8.7
Sample allocation at the Secondary level

8.8
Sample collection timeline

9
Data Generation/ Sampling collection process

9.1
WHO will collect the samples?
More qualified staff will cost more to engage.
9.2
HOW will samples be collected?
More time-consuming sampling approaches will influence labour cost.
9.3
WHEN/HOW OFTEN will samples be collected?
More frequent sampling approaches will influence labour and test costs.
9.4
Training
Training will influence costs (increase at first, but may save money later!).
9.5
Follow-up
Good follow up will help to keep costs under control.
10
Transfer means

10.1
HOW will samples be transferred?
The choice of how samples or data are transferred may be very influential on the costs.
10.2
WHEN/HOW OFTEN will samples be collected?
The choice of how often samples or data are transferred may be very influential on the costs => usually more often, higher costs.
10.3
Training

11
Data Translation/ sample analyses process

11.1
WHO will perform the analyses?

11.2
HOW will samples be analysed

11.3
WHEN/HOW OFTEN will samples be collected?
Batch or fixed schedule testing may help keep costs low particularly where automated batch testing can be used. Consult the laboratory to discuss.
11.4
Expected LOAD

11.5
Training
Training can be costly. Methods such as the production of guidelines or manuals or on-line training may be as effective and cheaper than holding attended training courses.
11.6
Follow-up

12
Epidemiological analyses

12.1
Are there any epidemiological DATA that need to be collected?

12.2
WHO will perform the analyses?

12.3
HOW will epidemiological analyses be performed?

12.4
WHEN/HOW OFTEN?

12.5
Training
Using on the job or on-line training where appropriate can reduce costs.
12.6
Data management needs

12.7
Software needs

13
Dissemination of results

13.1
WHO will disseminate the results?

13.2
WHO is the TARGET of dissemination?

13.3
HOW will results be disseminated?

13.4
WHEN/HOW OFTEN?

14
Surveillance review

14.1
Who

14.2
When

14.3
How often



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